A sacrament is an outward sign established by Jesus Christ to confer inward grace through the power of the Holy Spirit.
The Anointing of the Sick, formerly called Extreme Unction, is for all Catholics as a means to bring both spiritual and physical strength. These include those who suffer from illnesses, who are scheduled for surgery, treatments for disease, or who experience a sudden medical crisis.
The anointing of the sick is often administered outside of the "Last Rites" and it should not be delayed without good reason. The sacrament is appropriate for the elderly weakened by advanced age or suffering from chronic or long-term illnesses. The sacrament may be repeated if the sick person's condition becomes more serious or relapse occurs after recovery. The person afflicted has no need to explain the reason for presenting themselves.
For those who are in the end-of-life stage or Hospice care, family members should contact their parish priest immediately to have their loved one anointed as a priest may not be available on short notice prior to death.
The "Last Rites"
Through God's divine mercy, he gives us sacraments in the last rites to comfort us in our final days of preparation for the journey ahead. These include Reconciliation (confession), Confirmation (when lacking), Anointing of the Sick, and Viaticum (Holy Communion). The "Commendation of the Dying" prayer can also be offered for those near death.